RECENT BLOG NEWS

So, what’s new at wolfSSL? Take a look below to check out the most recent news, or sign up to receive weekly email notifications containing the latest news from wolfSSL. wolfSSL also has a support-specific blog page dedicated to answering some of the more commonly received support questions.

A Comparison of TLS 1.1 and TLS 1.2

As stated in the TLS 1.1 and 1.2 protocol definitions (RFC 4346, RFC 5246), “The primary goal of the TLS protocol is to provide privacy and data integrity between two communicating applications.” TLS 1.2 is an improvement to the TLS 1.1 standard, but how exactly do they differ? What was changed in TLS 1.2 to warrant a new version of the protocol?

Listed below are the changes made to both version 1.1 and 1.2 of the TLS protocol. TLS 1.2 support is slowly making it’s way into existing projects. wolfSSL embedded SSL/TLS fully supports SSL 3.0, TLS 1.0, TLS 1.1, and TLS 1.2.

A. TLS 1.1
This protocol was defined in RFC 4346 in April of 2006, and is an update to TLS 1.0. The major changes are:
– The Implicit Initialization Vector (IV) is replaced with an explicit IV to protect against Cipher block chaining (CBC) attacks.
– Handling of padded errors is changed to use the bad_record_mac alert rather than the decryption_failed alert to protect against CBC attacks.
– IANA registries are defined for protocol parameters
– Premature closes no longer cause a session to be non-resumable.

RFC 4346: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4346#section-1.1

B. TLS 1.2
This protocol was defined in RFC 5246 in August of 2008. Based on TLS 1.1, TLS 1.2 contains improved flexibility. One of the primary goals of the TLS 1.2 revision was to remove the protocol’s dependency on the MD5 and SHA-1 digest algorithms. The major differences include:
– The MD5/SHA-1 combination in the pseudorandom function (PRF) was replaced with cipher-suite-specified PRFs.
– The MD5/SHA-1 combination in the digitally-signed element was replaced with a single hash. Signed elements include a field explicitly specifying the hash algorithm used.
– There was substantial cleanup to the client`s and server`s ability to specify which hash and signature algorithms they will accept.
– Addition of support for authenticated encryption with additional data modes.
– TLS Extensions definition and AES Cipher Suites were merged in.
– Tighter checking of EncryptedPreMasterSecret version numbers.
– Many of the requirements were tightened
– Verify_data length depends on the cipher suite
– Description of Bleichenbacher/Dlima attack defenses cleaned up.
– Alerts must be sent in many cases
– After a certificate_request, if no certificates are available, clients now MUST send an empty certificate list.
– TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA is now the mandatory to implement cipher suite.
– Added HMAC-SHA256 cipher suites.
– Removed IDEA and DES cipher suites. They are now deprecated.

RFC 5246: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5246

C. Goals of the TLS Protocol

– Cryptographic security: TLS should be used to establish a secure connection between two parties.
– Interoperability: Independent programmers should be able to develop applications utilizing TLS that can successfully exchange cryptographic parameters without knowledge of one another`s code.
– Extensibility: TLS seeks to provide a framework into which new public key and bulk encryption methods can be incorporated as necessary. This will also accomplish two sub-goals: preventing the need to create a new protocol (and risking the introduction of possible new weaknesses) and avoiding the need to implement an entire new security library.
– Relative efficiency: Cryptographic operations tend to be highly CPU intensive, particularly public key operations. For this reason, the TLS protocol has incorporated an optional session caching scheme to reduce the number of connections that need to be established from scratch. Additionally, care has been taken to reduce network activity.

Resources:
If you would like to read more about SSL or TLS, here are several resources that might be helpful:
TLS – Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_Layer_Security)
SSL versus TLS – What`s the Difference? (http://luxsci.com/blog/ssl-versus-tls-whats-the-difference.html)
Cisco – SSL: Foundation for Web Security (http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac123/ac147/archived_issues/ipj_1-1/ssl.html)

As always, if you have any questions or would like to talk to the wolfSSL team about more information, please contact facts@wolfssl.com.

What comes next after smartphones?

As participants in securing the mobile internet tsunami, we’ve been keeping a keen eye on the future security needs of the next generation of devices.  We view it from both project involvement and product management for our embedded SSL and embedded web server products.    This article https://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?section_id=36&doc_id=1265933 at Embedded Internet Design gives a view of what’s coming next in smartphones. 
 
If you’re also guy or a gal out there tinkering with this stuff and testing your ideas with an eye on security, take a look at the beagleboard, pandaboard, and mbed.  wolfSSL and the yaSSL Embedded Web server will be there for you!

Book review on ?C/TCP-IP by Christian Legare

We’ve integrated wolfSSL with ?C/TCP-IP and can say it is an excellent implementation well designed for embedded systems.  In fact, we can say that the integration process drove us to make some great improvements to our product.  For example, our next release will not require the standard C library for even greater flexibility when implementing SSL.  But more about that later!  Here’s the link to the book review:   

 https://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?section_id=31&doc_id=1284762

Our SSL Programming Tutorial is Up

We have recently released an SSL programming tutorial which walks through the process of integrating wolfSSL into a simple application. The wolfSSL embedded SSL library is used, along with a simple echoserver and echoclient. The echoserver and echoclient examples have been taken from the popular book titled Unix Network Programming, Volume 1, 3rd Edition by Richard Stevens, Bill Fenner, and Andrew Rudoff.

Some of the topics covered in this SSL coding tutorial include:
– Required libraries
– What headers are needed
– Startup and Shutdown of wolfSSL
– Sending Data over an SSL connection
– Importing and using Certificates

The SSL tutorial can be found here: SSL Tutorial. All of the source code for the examples is available for download and is linked to from the SSL tutorial webpage.

If you have any questions, feel free to post to our support forums (www.yassl.com/forums), or contact us at info@yassl.com.

yaSSL Annual Report

yaSSL made dramatic progress this year on a number of fronts, notably in open source community usage, embedded systems adoption, and technology improvements!  Here’s what we’ve done this year, with an outline of our plans for the year to come in a blog post to follow:
 
1. Participated in 4 industry events, including OSCON, Embedded Live, Embedded Systems Computing, and ARM TechCon. 
1. We launched a new and improved web site including new product support forums.
3. We’ve made significant incremental improvements to our documentation.
4. New partners!  We’ll announce two new resale partners next week!
5. New technology partners: Canonical, Red Hat, Novell, Freescale and Express Logic.
6. Added a new Competitive Upgrade Program for wolfSSL. More details can be found at our Consulting Services page, under “Rip and Replace Competitive Upgrade
 
Our long list of technology improvements includes:
 
1. ThreadX port.  wolfSSL now supports building and running on ThreadX “out of the box”.
2. GoAhead Web Server port.  wolfSSL now builds and runs with the GoAhead Web Server through the wolfSSL OpenSSL compatibility layer.
3. Sniffer.  wolfSSL now has the ability to sniff an SSL session with the server`s private key and decode the application data.
4. Swig.  wolfSSL has a swig interface file to allow multiple language access.
5. Python.  wolfSSL now has some python bindings for CTaoCrypt.
6. AES-NI.  wolfSSL now has AES-NI assembly optimizations for supported Intel hardware “Westmere”.
7. ARM. wolfSSL now has assembly optimizations for fastmath Public Key operations.
8. Mongoose.  wolfSSL now builds and runs with the Mongoose Web Server with the wolfSSL OpenSSL compatibility layer.
9. JSSE.  wolfSSL can now be a plug-in for system Java SSL Providers on OS X and Linux.
10. Android.  wolfSSL is now ported to Android.
11. SHA-512.  wolfSSL now supports the SHA-512 hash on systems with support for 64 bit types.
12. RIPEMD-160.  wolfSSL now supports RIPEMD-160 as a hashing algorithm.
13. Key generation.  wolfSSL now supports key generation.
14. Certificate generation.  wolfSSL now supports certificate generation.
15. yaSSL Embedded Web Server.  Our “own” web server with wolfSSL for security.
16. Low static memory.  wolfSSL went from a default of 48kB static memory per SSL session to 4kB. (alpha)
17. Low dynamic memory.  wolfSSL decreased runtime dynamic memory use. (alpha)
18. Porting.  Increased the portability/flexibility of using wolfSSL on non-standard build environments with an OS header with defines that control the build.
19. No stdlib.  wolfSSL can now be built without any C standard library headers, developers can now use their own “standard” library plug-in. (alpha)
20. Secure memcache.  wolfSSL can now be used to secure memcache network communication including client/patient sensitive data/health records from internal and external snoopers locally and in the cloud. (beta)
21. Mbed.  wolfSSL can be built and run on the Mbed microcontroller. (alpha)
 
We’re happy with our progress this year, and look forward to making even more improvements next year!  We’ll be going into 2011 with greater resources and plan to move this project and business forward at an even faster rate. 

wolfSSL and TomatoUSB

Hi!

The TomatoUSB community has integrated wolfSSL into the TomatoUSB Firmware as of release 53. wolfSSL is being used in non-VPN editions of the firmware to provide SSL support for httdp and dyndns. They have upgraded to TLS 1.0 from SSL v 2/3 which was previously being used.

TomatoUSB is an alternative linux-based firmware for powering Broadcom-based ethernet routers. It is a modification of the famous Tomato firmware. Some of the added enhancements include support for USB port, wireless-N mode support, and support for several newer router models.

We always like to support community projects which use our products. If you have an open source project and are using wolfSSL or one of our other products, let us know and we’ll gladly support you. If you have questions or would like more information, please contact us at info@yassl.com.

For more information about the TomatoUSB project, visit their website: http://tomatousb.org/

yaSSL Annual Report

yaSSL made dramatic progress this year on a number of fronts, notably in open source community usage, embedded systems adoption, and technology improvements!  Here’s what we’ve done this year, with an outline of our plans for the year to come in a blog post to follow:

1.  Participated in 4 industry events, including OSCON, Embedded Live, Embedded Systems Computing, and ARM TechCon.

  1. 2. We launched a new and improved web site including new product support forums.

3.  We’ve made significant incremental improvements to our documentation.

4.  New partners!  We’ll announce two new resale partners next week!

5.  New technology partners: Canonical, Red Hat, Novell, Freescale and Express Logic.

6.  Added a new Competitive Upgrade Program for CyaSSL.  More details can be found at our Consulting Services page, under “Rip and Replace Competitive Upgrade

Our long list of technology improvements includes:

1.  ThreadX port.  CyaSSL now supports building and running on ThreadX “out of the box”.

2.  GoAhead Web Server port.  CyaSSL now builds and runs with the GoAhead Web Server through the CyaSSL OpenSSL compatibility layer.

3.  Sniffer.  CyaSSL now has the ability to sniff an SSL session with the server’s private key and decode the application data.

4.  Swig.  CyaSSL has a swig interface file to allow multiple language access.

5.  Python.  CyaSSL now has some python bindings for CTaoCrypt.

6.  AES-NI.  CyaSSL now has AES-NI assembly optimizations for supported Intel hardware “Westmere”.

7.  ARM.  CyaSSL now has assembly optimizations for fastmath Public Key operations.

8.  Mongoose.  CyaSSL now builds and runs with the Mongoose Web Server with the CyaSSL OpenSSL compatibility layer.

9.  JSSE.  CyaSSL can now be a plug-in for system Java SSL Providers on OS X and Linux.

10.  Android.  CyaSSL is now ported to Android.

11.  SHA-512.  CyaSSL now supports the SHA-512 hash on systems with support for 64 bit types.

12.  RIPEMD-160.  CyaSSL now supports RIPEMD-160 as a hashing algorithm.

13.  Key generation.  CyaSSL now supports key generation.

14.  Certificate generation.  CyaSSL now supports certificate generation.

15.  yaSSL Embedded Web Server.  Our “own” web server with CyaSSL for security.

16.  Low static memory.  CyaSSL went from a default of 48kB static memory per SSL session to 4kB. (alpha)

17.  Low dynamic memory.  CyaSSL decreased runtime dynamic memory use. (alpha)

18.  Porting.  Increased the portability/flexibility of using CyaSSL on non-standard build environments with an OS header with defines that control the build.

19.  No stdlib.  CyaSSL can now be built without any C standard library headers, developers can now use their own “standard” library plug-in. (alpha)

20.  Secure memcache.  CyaSSL can now be used to secure memcache network communication including client/patient sensitive data/health records from internal and external snoopers locally and in the cloud. (beta)

21.  Mbed.  CyaSSL can be built and run on the Mbed microcontroller. (alpha)

We’re happy with our progress this year, and look forward to making even more improvements next year!  We’ll be going into 2011 with greater resources and plan to move this project and business forward at an even faster rate.

Initial Results of wolfSSL on mbed

Recently we’ve been working on porting wolfSSL over to mbed (http://mbed.org/). Now that we have things working, we can report some initial results. wolfSSL takes 2.9 kB of RAM (10% of total) and 63 kB of Flash (13%).  That includes our test driver code which is about 3 kB.

On our test machine, we ran some benchmarks of CTaoCrypt and compared them to the results of running on the mbed. You can see that the results of running on the mbed were much slower, but not bad for a 96 Mhz processor with very limited memory.

On our desktop machine, for fastmath RSA 1024 bit:

public  RSA: 0.06 milliseconds
private RSA: 0.61 milliseconds

On the mbed for fastmath RSA 1024 bit:

public  RSA:  10 milliseconds
private RSA: 165 milliseconds

If you would like more information about these tests or our products, please contact info@yassl.com.

Statistics and Projections on Connected Consumer Devices

The average consumer in the US will “own 5-10 web-enabled devices by 2014” according to In-Stat.  See here for details:  http://www.embeddedinternetdesign.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=228300296 (as of 26 March 2018 at 9:20am MDT, this link is broken and has no alternative). By our reckoning, that means about 200 Million devices that need to be enabled with embedded SSL to assure privacy and safety.  We’ll have our work cut out for us at yaSSL.com, which means we need more staff!  We’re hiring, and if you’re reading this, then you’re probably interested in this kind of embedded systems stuff, you like your command line, engage in arguments over code editors (VI vs. Emacs (we’re a VI shop)), and know how to write small, tight, portable code.  Let us how you would like to contribute or send your resume or CV to larry@yassl.com!

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