BENCHMARKING WOLFSSL AND WOLFCRYPT

The wolfSSL embedded SSL/TLS library was written from the ground-up with portability, performance, and memory usage in mind.  Here you will find a collection of existing benchmark information for wolfSSL and the wolfCrypt cryptography library as well as information on how to benchmark wolfSSL on your own platform.  If you would like additional benchmark data or have any questions about your specific platform, please contact us at facts@wolfssl.com.

wolfCrypt Benchmark Application

Many users are curious about how the wolfSSL embedded SSL/TLS library will perform on a specific hardware device or in a specific environment.  Because of the wide variety of different platforms and compilers used today in embedded, enterprise, and cloud-based environments, it is hard to give generic performance calculations.

To help wolfSSL users and customers in determining performance for wolfSSL and wolfCrypt, a benchmark application is bundled with wolfSSL.  Because the underlying cryptography is a very performance-critical aspect of SSL/TLS, our benchmark application runs performance tests on wolfCrypt’s algorithms.

 

Running the benchmark

The benchmark utility is located in the “./wolfcrypt/benchmark” directory of the wolfSSL package.  After building wolfSSL and the associated examples and apps, the benchmark application can be run by issuing the following command from the package directory root:

./wolfcrypt/benchmark/benchmark

Typical output will look similar to the output below (showing throughput in MB/s as well as cycles per byte):

wolfCrypt Benchmark (block bytes 1048576, min 1.0 sec each)
RNG                100 MB took 1.047 seconds,   95.466 MB/s Cycles per byte =  22.92
AES-128-CBC-enc    200 MB took 1.020 seconds,  196.027 MB/s Cycles per byte =  11.16
AES-128-CBC-dec    215 MB took 1.008 seconds,  213.318 MB/s Cycles per byte =  10.26
AES-192-CBC-enc    175 MB took 1.016 seconds,  172.265 MB/s Cycles per byte =  12.70
AES-192-CBC-dec    180 MB took 1.009 seconds,  178.405 MB/s Cycles per byte =  12.27
AES-256-CBC-enc    150 MB took 1.007 seconds,  148.932 MB/s Cycles per byte =  14.69
AES-256-CBC-dec    160 MB took 1.026 seconds,  155.994 MB/s Cycles per byte =  14.03
AES-128-GCM-enc     60 MB took 1.010 seconds,   59.427 MB/s Cycles per byte =  36.82
AES-128-GCM-dec     65 MB took 1.070 seconds,   60.750 MB/s Cycles per byte =  36.02
AES-192-GCM-enc     60 MB took 1.050 seconds,   57.138 MB/s Cycles per byte =  38.30
AES-192-GCM-dec     60 MB took 1.024 seconds,   58.590 MB/s Cycles per byte =  37.35
AES-256-GCM-enc     55 MB took 1.029 seconds,   53.438 MB/s Cycles per byte =  40.95
AES-256-GCM-dec     60 MB took 1.090 seconds,   55.069 MB/s Cycles per byte =  39.74
CHACHA             360 MB took 1.001 seconds,  359.628 MB/s Cycles per byte =   6.09
CHA-POLY           285 MB took 1.014 seconds,  280.943 MB/s Cycles per byte =   7.79
MD5                450 MB took 1.010 seconds,  445.573 MB/s Cycles per byte =   4.91
POLY1305          1265 MB took 1.000 seconds, 1264.402 MB/s Cycles per byte =   1.73
SHA                475 MB took 1.000 seconds,  474.914 MB/s Cycles per byte =   4.61
SHA-224            210 MB took 1.018 seconds,  206.308 MB/s Cycles per byte =  10.61
SHA-256            210 MB took 1.018 seconds,  206.200 MB/s Cycles per byte =  10.61
SHA-384            280 MB took 1.016 seconds,  275.520 MB/s Cycles per byte =   7.94
SHA-512            275 MB took 1.000 seconds,  274.868 MB/s Cycles per byte =   7.96
SHA3-224           240 MB took 1.006 seconds,  238.506 MB/s Cycles per byte =   9.18
SHA3-256           225 MB took 1.007 seconds,  223.454 MB/s Cycles per byte =   9.79
SHA3-384           175 MB took 1.002 seconds,  174.610 MB/s Cycles per byte =  12.53
SHA3-512           125 MB took 1.031 seconds,  121.254 MB/s Cycles per byte =  18.05
HMAC-MD5           445 MB took 1.001 seconds,  444.651 MB/s Cycles per byte =   4.92
HMAC-SHA           470 MB took 1.009 seconds,  465.749 MB/s Cycles per byte =   4.70
HMAC-SHA224        200 MB took 1.001 seconds,  199.874 MB/s Cycles per byte =  10.95
HMAC-SHA256        205 MB took 1.004 seconds,  204.228 MB/s Cycles per byte =  10.72
HMAC-SHA384        290 MB took 1.009 seconds,  287.401 MB/s Cycles per byte =   7.61
HMAC-SHA512        290 MB took 1.013 seconds,  286.214 MB/s Cycles per byte =   7.65
RSA   2048 public       2800 ops took 1.014 sec, avg 0.362 ms, 2761.995 ops/sec
RSA   2048 private       300 ops took 1.308 sec, avg 4.359 ms, 229.402 ops/sec
DH    2048 key gen       735 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 1.361 ms, 734.608 ops/sec
DH    2048 key agree     800 ops took 1.123 sec, avg 1.404 ms, 712.131 ops/sec
ECC    256 key gen      1108 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 0.903 ms, 1107.306 ops/sec
ECDHE  256 agree        1200 ops took 1.043 sec, avg 0.869 ms, 1150.329 ops/sec
ECDSA  256 sign         1200 ops took 1.078 sec, avg 0.898 ms, 1113.279 ops/sec
ECDSA  256 verify       1700 ops took 1.045 sec, avg 0.615 ms, 1627.064 ops/sec

This application is especially useful for comparing the public key speed before and after changing the math library. You can test the results using the normal math library (./configure), the fastmath library (./configure --enable-fastmath), and the fasthugemath library (./configure --enable-fasthugemath).

Memory Usage

Footprint sizes (compiled binary size) for wolfSSL range between 20-100kB depending on build options and the compiler being used.  Typically on an embedded system with an embedded and optimized compiler, build sizes will be around 60kB.  This will include a full-featured TLS 1.2 client and server.  For details on build options and ways to further customize wolfSSL, please see Chapter 2 of the CyaSSL Manual, or the wolfSSL Tuning Guide.

Regarding runtime memory usage, wolfSSL will generally consume between 1-36 kB per SSL/TLS session.  The RAM usage per connection will vary depending the size of the input/output buffers being used, public key algorithm, and key size.  The I/O buffers in wolfSSL default to 128 bytes and are controlled by the RECORD_SIZE define in ./wolfssl/internal.h.  The maximum size is 16 kB per buffer (as specified by the SSL/TLS RFC).  As an example, with standard 16kB buffers, the total runtime memory usage of wolfSSL with a single connection would be 3kB (the library) + 16kB (input buffer) + 16kB (output buffer) = around 35kB.

The TLS context (WOLFSSL_CTX) is shared between all TLS connections of either a client or server.  The runtime memory usage can vary depending on how many certificates are being loaded and what size the certificate files are.  It will also vary depending on the session cache and whether or not storing session certificates is turned on (--enable-session-certs).  If you are concerned with reducing the session cache size, you can define SMALL_SESSION_CACHE (reduce the default session cache from 33 session to 6 sessions) and save almost 2.5 kB.  You can disable the session cache by defining NO_SESSION_CACHE, reducing memory by nearly 3 kB.

Reference Benchmarks

As we port wolfSSL to various platforms, we oftentimes conduct benchmarks on these platforms.  Below you will find a collection of some of those benchmarks for reference.  If you have benchmarked wolfSSL on a specific platform, please send us your benchmark numbers (with specific platform and library configuration) and we’ll add them to the list!

Platform:

 

SiFive:

SiFive HiFive1 Rev B

Benchmark:

The benchmark values were collected with a clock speed of 320MHz. Configuration includes 4608 bytes for the stack and 2048 bytes for the heap.

wolfCrypt Benchmark (block bytes 1024, min 1.0 sec each)
RNG                250 KB took 1.098 seconds,  227.714 KB/s
AES-128-CBC-enc     50 KB took 1.132 seconds,   44.175 KB/s
AES-128-CBC-dec     50 KB took 1.142 seconds,   43.778 KB/s
AES-192-CBC-enc     50 KB took 1.250 seconds,   40.007 KB/s
AES-192-CBC-dec     50 KB took 1.260 seconds,   39.677 KB/s
AES-256-CBC-enc     50 KB took 1.368 seconds,   36.552 KB/s
AES-256-CBC-dec     50 KB took 1.378 seconds,   36.279 KB/s
AES-128-GCM-enc     25 KB took 1.225 seconds,   20.412 KB/s
AES-128-GCM-dec     25 KB took 1.225 seconds,   20.402 KB/s
AES-192-GCM-enc     25 KB took 1.290 seconds,   19.373 KB/s
AES-192-GCM-dec     25 KB took 1.291 seconds,   19.366 KB/s
AES-256-GCM-enc     25 KB took 1.352 seconds,   18.487 KB/s
AES-256-GCM-dec     25 KB took 1.353 seconds,   18.478 KB/s
CHACHA               1 MB took 1.006 seconds,    1.020 MB/s
CHA-POLY           700 KB took 1.032 seconds,  678.045 KB/s
POLY1305             2 MB took 1.007 seconds,    2.255 MB/s
SHA                  2 MB took 1.002 seconds,    1.511 MB/s
SHA-256            525 KB took 1.011 seconds,  519.279 KB/s
SHA-512            275 KB took 1.017 seconds,  270.477 KB/s
HMAC-SHA             1 MB took 1.013 seconds,    1.399 MB/s
HMAC-SHA256        525 KB took 1.019 seconds,  515.020 KB/s
HMAC-SHA512        275 KB took 1.032 seconds,  266.351 KB/s
ECC      256 key gen         2 ops took 1.104 sec, avg 551.834 ms, 1.812 ops/sec
ECDHE    256 agree           2 ops took 1.101 sec, avg 550.400 ms, 1.817 ops/sec
ECDSA    256 sign            2 ops took 1.173 sec, avg 586.502 ms, 1.705 ops/sec
ECDSA    256 verify          2 ops took 2.153 sec, avg 1076.294 ms, 0.929 ops/sec
CURVE  25519 key gen         2 ops took 1.629 sec, avg 814.423 ms, 1.228 ops/sec
CURVE  25519 agree           2 ops took 1.626 sec, avg 813.156 ms, 1.230 ops/sec
ED     25519 key gen         1 ops took 1.436 sec, avg 1436.096 ms, 0.696 ops/sec
ED     25519 sign            2 ops took 2.913 sec, avg 1456.421 ms, 0.687 ops/sec
ED     25519 verify          2 ops took 5.012 sec, avg 2506.012 ms, 0.399 ops/sec

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Platform:

 

Renesas:

Renesas RX MPU (R5F571MLDDFC)

Benchmark:

These values were collected by running the wolfCrypt benchmark application on an Alpha Project board (AP-RX71M-0A)

wolfCrypt Benchmark (block bytes 1024, min 1.0 sec each)
RNG                775 KB took 1.031 seconds,  751.916 KB/s
AES-128-CBC-enc      2 MB took 1.006 seconds,    1.505 MB/s
AES-128-CBC-dec      1 MB took 1.010 seconds,    1.450 MB/s
AES-192-CBC-enc      1 MB took 1.010 seconds,    1.378 MB/s
AES-192-CBC-dec      1 MB took 1.011 seconds,    1.328 MB/s
AES-256-CBC-enc      1 MB took 1.019 seconds,    1.270 MB/s
AES-256-CBC-dec      1 MB took 1.014 seconds,    1.227 MB/s
AES-128-GCM-enc    675 KB took 1.025 seconds,  658.858 KB/s
AES-128-GCM-dec    675 KB took 1.026 seconds,  658.087 KB/s
AES-192-GCM-enc    650 KB took 1.027 seconds,  633.220 KB/s
AES-192-GCM-dec    650 KB took 1.028 seconds,  632.603 KB/s
AES-256-GCM-enc    625 KB took 1.025 seconds,  609.697 KB/s
AES-256-GCM-dec    625 KB took 1.026 seconds,  609.102 KB/s
RABBIT               9 MB took 1.001 seconds,    8.534 MB/s
3DES               475 KB took 1.035 seconds,  458.893 KB/s
MD5                 13 MB took 1.001 seconds,   13.275 MB/s
SHA                  5 MB took 1.002 seconds,    4.778 MB/s
SHA-256              2 MB took 1.006 seconds,    1.650 MB/s
SHA-384            675 KB took 1.034 seconds,  653.057 KB/s
SHA-512            675 KB took 1.034 seconds,  652.994 KB/s
HMAC-MD5            13 MB took 1.001 seconds,   13.142 MB/s
HMAC-SHA             5 MB took 1.004 seconds,    4.768 MB/s
HMAC-SHA256          2 MB took 1.014 seconds,    1.638 MB/s
HMAC-SHA384        650 KB took 1.010 seconds,  643.437 KB/s
HMAC-SHA512        650 KB took 1.011 seconds,  643.182 KB/s
RSA     2048 public         26 ops took 1.067 sec, avg 41.038 ms, 24.367 ops/sec
RSA     2048 private         2 ops took 1.157 sec, avg 578.500 ms, 1.729 ops/sec
DH      2048 key gen         6 ops took 1.049 sec, avg 174.883 ms, 5.718 ops/sec
DH      2048 agree           6 ops took 1.191 sec, avg 198.433 ms, 5.039 ops/sec
ECC      256 key gen         7 ops took 1.162 sec, avg 165.943 ms, 6.026 ops/sec
ECDHE    256 agree           8 ops took 1.323 sec, avg 165.325 ms, 6.049 ops/sec
ECDSA    256 sign            6 ops took 1.044 sec, avg 174.017 ms, 5.747 ops/sec
ECDSA    256 verify          4 ops took 1.281 sec, avg 320.300 ms, 3.122 ops/sec
CURVE  25519 key gen         5 ops took 1.137 sec, avg 227.300 ms, 4.399 ops/sec
CURVE  25519 agree           6 ops took 1.366 sec, avg 227.583 ms, 4.394 ops/sec
ED     25519 key gen       198 ops took 1.003 sec, avg 5.064 ms, 197.467 ops/sec
ED     25519 sign          146 ops took 1.005 sec, avg 6.885 ms, 145.245 ops/sec
ED     25519 verify         62 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 16.147 ms, 61.932 ops/sec

More information on using wolfSSL in combination with Renesas and wolfSSL's support for Renesas can be found here: https://www.wolfssl.com/docs/renesas/

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Platform:

 

Xilinx ZCU102 Petalinux:

Benchmark:

RSA evaluation:

wolfSSL RSA evaluation

wolfSSL only:

wolfSSL only
wolfSSL only and hashing

wolfSSL and ARMv8:

wolfSSL and ARMv8
wolfSSL and ARMv8 and hashing

wolfSSL hardware acceleration:

wolfSSL hardware acceleration

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Platform:

 

Espressif ESP32 WROOM:

Benchmark:

These benchmark values were collected with the fastmath library in use, on an esp32-wroom-32 with CPU speed:240MHz, ESP-IDF version v3.3-beta1-39-g6cb37ecc5(commit hash: 6cb37ecc5), and operating system Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS (Bionic Beaver).

Software encryption:

AES-128-CBC-enc      1 MB took 1.001 seconds,    1.146 MB/s
AES-128-CBC-dec      1 MB took 1.017 seconds,    1.104 MB/s
AES-192-CBC-enc      1 MB took 1.018 seconds,    1.055 MB/s
AES-192-CBC-dec      1 MB took 1.006 seconds,    1.019 MB/s
AES-256-CBC-enc   1000 KB took 1.000 seconds, 1000.000 KB/s
AES-256-CBC-dec    975 KB took 1.007 seconds,  968.222 KB/s
AES-128-GCM-enc    350 KB took 1.055 seconds,  331.754 KB/s
AES-128-GCM-dec    350 KB took 1.054 seconds,  332.068 KB/s
AES-192-GCM-enc    325 KB took 1.013 seconds,  320.829 KB/s
AES-192-GCM-dec    325 KB took 1.013 seconds,  320.829 KB/s
AES-256-GCM-enc    325 KB took 1.041 seconds,  312.200 KB/s
AES-256-GCM-dec    325 KB took 1.041 seconds,  312.200 KB/s
SHA                  6 MB took 1.004 seconds,    5.714 MB/s
SHA-256              2 MB took 1.006 seconds,    1.747 MB/s
SHA-384              1 MB took 1.011 seconds,    1.159 MB/s
SHA-512              1 MB took 1.009 seconds,    1.161 MB/s
HMAC-SHA             6 MB took 1.001 seconds,    5.634 MB/s
HMAC-SHA256          2 MB took 1.000 seconds,    1.733 MB/s
HMAC-SHA384          1 MB took 1.004 seconds,    1.046 MB/s
HMAC-SHA512          1 MB took 1.002 seconds,    1.048 MB/s
RSA     2048 public         16 ops took 1.056 sec, avg 66.000 ms, 15.152 ops/sec
RSA     2048 private         2 ops took 2.488 sec, avg 1244.000 ms, 0.804 ops/sec
ECC      256 key gen         4 ops took 1.101 sec, avg 275.250 ms, 3.633 ops/sec
ECDHE    256 agree           4 ops took 1.098 sec, avg 274.500 ms, 3.643 ops/sec
ECDSA    256 sign            4 ops took 1.111 sec, avg 277.750 ms, 3.600 ops/sec
ECDSA    256 verify          2 ops took 1.099 sec, avg 549.500 ms, 1.820 ops/sec

Hardware encryption

AES-128-CBC-enc      6 MB took 1.004 seconds,    5.958 MB/s
AES-128-CBC-dec      5 MB took 1.002 seconds,    5.287 MB/s
AES-192-CBC-enc      6 MB took 1.004 seconds,    5.958 MB/s
AES-192-CBC-dec      5 MB took 1.002 seconds,    5.287 MB/s
AES-256-CBC-enc      6 MB took 1.001 seconds,    5.951 MB/s
AES-256-CBC-dec      5 MB took 1.004 seconds,    5.277 MB/s
AES-128-GCM-enc    375 KB took 1.067 seconds,  351.453 KB/s
AES-128-GCM-dec    375 KB took 1.067 seconds,  351.453 KB/s
AES-192-GCM-enc    350 KB took 1.010 seconds,  346.535 KB/s
AES-192-GCM-dec    350 KB took 1.009 seconds,  346.878 KB/s
AES-256-GCM-enc    350 KB took 1.016 seconds,  344.488 KB/s
AES-256-GCM-dec    350 KB took 1.016 seconds,  344.488 KB/s
SHA                 14 MB took 1.000 seconds,   14.062 MB/s
SHA-256             15 MB took 1.000 seconds,   15.234 MB/s
SHA-384             17 MB took 1.000 seconds,   17.383 MB/s
SHA-512             18 MB took 1.001 seconds,   17.512 MB/s
HMAC-SHA            14 MB took 1.000 seconds,   13.818 MB/s
HMAC-SHA256         15 MB took 1.001 seconds,   14.951 MB/s
HMAC-SHA384         17 MB took 1.001 seconds,   16.683 MB/s
HMAC-SHA512         17 MB took 1.000 seconds,   16.943 MB/s
RSA     2048 public         20 ops took 1.017 sec, avg 50.850 ms, 19.666 ops/sec
RSA     2048 private         4 ops took 1.059 sec, avg 264.750 ms, 3.777 ops/sec
ECC      256 key gen         4 ops took 1.092 sec, avg 273.000 ms, 3.663 ops/sec
ECDHE    256 agree           4 ops took 1.089 sec, avg 272.250 ms, 3.673 ops/sec
ECDSA    256 sign            4 ops took 1.101 sec, avg 275.250 ms, 3.633 ops/sec
ECDSA    256 verify          2 ops took 1.092 sec, avg 546.000 ms, 1.832 ops/sec

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Platform:

Intel x86_64:

Benchmark:

Recent releases of wolfSSL have included new assembly code targeted at the Intel x86_64 platform. Large performance gains have been made, and the first two graphs pertain to performance increases with AES-GCM.

In the graphs for these benchmarks, the Y-axis signifies block size, while the X-axis signifies relative speed to the prior version of wolfSSL.

The assembly code for AES-GCM has been rewritten to take best advantage of the AVX1 and AVX2 instructions. The performance of AES-GCM is now as good or better than OpenSSL.

wolfSSL vs. OpenSSL, wolfSSL v OpenSSL, OpenSSL, v, vs, vs., wolfSSL

ChaCha20-Poly1305 is a relatively new authenticated encryption algorithm. It was designed as an alternative to AES-GCM. The algorithm is simple and fast on CPUs that do not have hardware acceleration for AES and GCM.

The most commonly used digest algorithms are SHA-256 and SHA-384. With the introduction of AES-GCM in TLS, SHA-256 and SHA-384 are less commonly used for application data authentication. But, they are still used for handshake message authentication, as a one-way function (as required in a pseudo-random number generator) and digital signatures.

SHA-512-AVX2-BMI2

Curve25519 is set of parameters for a Montgomery elliptic curve and has ~128-bit security. It is used in key exchange and has become popular due to its speed and inclusion in standards. The algorithm is included as part of TLS v1.3 and NIST is considering it as part of SP 800-186. Ed25519 is set of parameters for a Twisted Edwards curve and is mathematically related to Curve25519 and has the same security properties. A new signature scheme has been designed over Twisted Edwards curves that is fast and included as part of TLS v1.3. A draft specification has been written describing digital certificates using EdDSA with Ed25519.

RSA is the most commonly used public key algorithm for certificates. When performing a TLS handshake, the server will sign a hash of the messages seen so far and the client will verify the signature of certificates in the certificate chain and verify the hash of messages with the public key in the certificate. Signing and verifying are the most time-consuming operations in a handshake.

DH has been the key exchange algorithm of choice in handshakes but is falling out of favor as the Elliptic Curve variants are considerably faster at the same security level. Performing the key exchange is the second most time-consuming operation in a TLS handshake.

Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is the alternative to finite field (FF) cryptography which has algorithms like RSA, DSA and DH. ECDSA is the elliptic curve variant of RSA and DSA while ECDH is the elliptic curve variant of DH. ECDSA and ECDH can be used anywhere their FF counterparts can be used. ECC requires a pre-defined curve to perform the operations on. The most commonly used curve is P-256 as it has 128-bit strength and is in many standards including TLS, for certificates in IETF, and NIST’s FIPS 186-4. Browsers and web servers are preferring ECDH over DH as it is much faster.

If you have questions about using the wolfSSL embedded TLS library on your platform, or about performance optimization of the library, contact us at support@wolfssl.com.

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Platform:

NXP i.MX6

Benchmark:

This benchmark data was collected for Green Hills INTEGRITY OS on an NXP i.MX6, running the wolfSSL benchmark application.

 AES Benchmark data
Hashing benchmarks
Benchmark hashing

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Platform:

iPhone X:

Benchmark:

 

 

Benchmarks were collected using Apple's iPhone X, which has their new A11 processor. These benchmarks use ARMv8 crypto extensions and single precision math to demonstrate performance.

For symmetric AES and SHA using our ARMv8 crypto assembly speedups we see

iPhone X wolfSSL ARMv8 Benchmarks

Algorithm Performance
AES-128 CBC Encrypt 912.347 MB/s (36.58X)
AES-128 CBC Decrypt 6,084.83 MB/s (256.15X)
AES-128 GCM Encrypt 1,242.28 MB/s (193.65X)
AES-128 GCM Decrypt 575.83 MB/s (90.26X)
SHA-256 1,717.28 MB/s (56.11X)

This feature is enabled using `./configure --enable-armasm` or the `WOLFSSL_ARMASM` define.

For asymmetric RSA, DH and ECC using our single precision math speedups we see

wolfSSL Asymmetric single precision

Algorithm Performance
RSA 2048 public 1,211.27 ops/sec (1.50X)
RSA 2048 private 32.59 ops/sec (1.18X)
DH 2048 key gen 77.44 ops/sec (1.24X)
DH 2048 key agree 77.45 ops/sec (1.29X)
ECC 256 key gen 1670.65 ops/sec (8.67X)
ECDHE 256 agree 396.88 ops/sec (2.05X)
ECDSA 256 sign 1,212.33 ops/sec (6.42X)
ECDSA 256 verify 331.02 ops/sec (2.38X)

This feature is enabled using `./configure --enable-sp` or the `WOLFSSL_HAVE_SP_RSA`, `WOLFSSL_HAVE_SP_DH` and `WOLFSSL_HAVE_SP_ECC` defines.

For TLS v1.2 we see the following performance benchmarks by cipher suite

Algorithm Performance
DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256 CPS 22.5, Read 388 MB/s, Write 106 MB/s
ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 CPS 26.2, Read 598 MB/s RX, Write 125 MB/s
ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 CPS 83.4, Read 504.8 MB/s, Write 92.2 MB/s

Benchmarks done on iPhone X using a single thread and our wolfCrypt and wolfSSL benchmark tools.
`X`= performance increase as compared to our default software based implementation.
`CPS` = Connections per second

Reference: wolfCrypt/wolfSSL Benchmarks with iPhone 8/8 Plus/X (A11) blog post

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Platform:

 

Microchip PIC32MZ:

PIC32MZ, at 200MHz

Benchmark:

 

 

Benchmarks were collected using PIC32MZ Ethernet Starter Kit, using the wolfCrypt benchmark application and compiled with MPLAB X.

PIC32MZ Benchmarks

Software Crypto Hardware Crypto
AES-CBC 0.26 Mb/s 5.78 Mb/s
AES-CTR 0.69 Mb/s 5.67 Mb/s
3DES 6.19 Mb/s 6.19 Mb/s
MD5 6.22 Mb/s 16.84 Mb/s
SHA-1 3.46 Mb/s 16.65 Mb/s
SHA-256 1.678 Mb/s 15.84 Mb/s

Reference:

wolfSSL PIC32 Support

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Platform:

 

Microchip PIC32MZ:

PIC32MZ, at 200MHz

Benchmark:

 

 

Benchmarks were collected using PIC32MZ Ethernet Starter Kit, using the wolfCrypt benchmark application and compiled with MPLAB X.

PIC32MZ Benchmarks

Software Crypto Hardware Crypto
AES-CBC 0.26 Mb/s 5.78 Mb/s
AES-CTR 0.69 Mb/s 5.67 Mb/s
3DES 6.19 Mb/s 6.19 Mb/s
MD5 6.22 Mb/s 16.84 Mb/s
SHA-1 3.46 Mb/s 16.65 Mb/s
SHA-256 1.678 Mb/s 15.84 Mb/s

Reference:

wolfSSL PIC32 Support

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Platform:

 

STM32:

STM32F439, at 180MHz
STM32F756, at 216MHz

Benchmark:

 

 

Benchmarks were collected using STMicroelectronics Evaluation Boards, using the wolfCrypt benchmark application and compiled with IAR EWARM (Optimization: High/Size).

STM32 AES-CBC Benchmarks

STM32 AES-GCM Benchmarks

STM32 Message Digest Benchmarks

STM32 AES-CBC Benchmark Chart

STM32 AES-GCM Benchmark Chart

STM32 Message Digest Benchmark Chart

Reference:

wolfSSL STM32 Support

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Platform:

STM32F777NI:

ARM Cortex M7
216 MHz

Using GCC ARM (arm-none-eabi-gcc) with OpenSTM32 (System Workbench)

Bare Metal

Benchmark:

 

Crypto Benchmarks:

wolfSSL Software Crypto, Normal Big Integer Math Library

RNG 3 MB took 1.000 seconds 3.149 MB/s
AES-Enc 6 MB took 1.000 seconds 6.494 MB/s
AES-Dec 7 MB took 1.000 seconds 6.519 MB/s
AES-GCM-Enc 3 MB took 1.004 seconds 553 MB/s
AES-GCM-Dec 3 MB took 1.004 seconds 2.553 MB/s
AES-CTR 7 MB took 1.000 seconds 6.543 MB/s
CHACHA 16 MB took 1.000 seconds 15.723 MB/s
CHA-POLY 10 MB took 1.000 seconds 10.474 MB/s
3DES 1 MB took 1.008 seconds 1.405 MB/s
MD5 24 MB took 1.000 seconds 24.243 MB/s
POLY1305 42 MB took 1.000 seconds 41.821 MB/s
SHA 14 MB took 1.000 seconds 14.380 MB/s
SHA-224 8 MB took 1.000 seconds 8.423 MB/s
SHA-256 8 MB took 1.000 seconds 8.423 MB/s
SHA-384 2 MB took 1.000 seconds 2.319 MB/s
SHA-512 2 MB took 1.000 seconds 2.319 MB/s

STM32F7 Hardware Crypto, Normal Big Integer Math Library

RNG 6 MB took 1.000 seconds 6.030 MB/s
AES-Enc 30 MB took 1.000 seconds 30.396 MB/s
AES-Dec 30 MB took 1.000 seconds 30.371 MB/s
AES-GCM-Enc 42 MB took 1.000 seconds 42.261 MB/s
AES-GCM-Dec 33 MB took 1.000 seconds 32.861 MB/s
AES-CTR 48 MB took 1.000 seconds 47.827 MB/s
CHACHA 16 MB took 1.000 seconds 15.747 MB/s
CHA-POLY 11 MB took 1.000 seconds 10.522 MB/s
3DES 13 MB took 1.000 seconds 12.988 MB/s
MD5 41 MB took 1.000 seconds 40.894 MB/s
POLY1305 42 MB took 1.000 seconds 41.846 MB/s
SHA 38 MB took 1.004 seconds 38.202 MB/s
SHA-224 41 MB took 1.000 seconds 41.309 MB/s
SHA-256 39 MB took 1.000 seconds 39.111 MB/s
SHA-384 2 MB took 1.004 seconds 2.310 MB/s
SHA-512 2 MB took 1.004 seconds 2.310 MB/s

Reference:

wolfSSL and STM32F7
STM32F77NI

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Platform:

Apple iPhone 8/8 Plus/X

Apple A11 Bionic
2.39 GHz hexa-core 64-bit

Benchmark:

Benchmarks on Apple’s new A11 processor in their latest iPhone 8 / 8 Plus and iPhone X. This processor features six ARMv8 CPU cores (2 high-performance 2.53GHz and 4 high-efficiency 1.42GHz). The benchmarks use wolfSSL’s latest speedups for ARMv8 crypto extensions and single precision math to demonstrate our exceptional performance.

For symmetric AES and SHA using our ARMv8 crypto assembly speedups we see:

AES-128 CBC Encrypt: 912.347 MB/s (36.58X)
AES-128 CBC Decrypt: 6,084.83 MB/s (256.15X)
AES-128 GCM Encrypt: 1,242.28 MB/s (193.65X)
AES-128 GCM Decrypt: 575.83 MB/s (90.26X)
SHA-256: 1,717.28 MB/s (56.11X)

This feature is enabled using `./configure –enable-armasm` or the `WOLFSSL_ARMASM` define.

For asymmetric RSA, DH and ECC using our single precision math speedups we see:

RSA 2048 public: 1,211.27 ops/sec (1.50X)
RSA 2048 private: 32.59 ops/sec (1.18X)
DH 2048 key gen: 77.44 ops/sec (1.24X)
DH 2048 key agree: 77.45 ops/sec (1.29X)
ECC 256 key gen: 1670.65 ops/sec (8.67X)
ECDHE 256 agree: 396.88 ops/sec (2.05X)
ECDSA 256 sign: 1,212.33 ops/sec (6.42X)
ECDSA 256 verify: 331.02 ops/sec (2.38X)

This feature is enabled using `./configure –enable-sp` or the `WOLFSSL_HAVE_SP_RSA`, `WOLFSSL_HAVE_SP_DH` and `WOLFSSL_HAVE_SP_ECC` defines.

For TLS v1.2 we see the following performance benchmarks by cipher suite:

DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256: CPS 22.5, Read 388 MB/s, Write 106 MB/s
ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256: CPS 26.2, Read 598 MB/s RX, Write 125 MB/s
ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256: CPS 83.4, Read 504.8 MB/s, Write 92.2 MB/s

Benchmarks done on iPhone X using a single thread and our wolfCrypt and wolfSSL benchmark tools.
`X`= performance increase as compared to our default software based implementation.
`CPS` = Connections per second

You can download the raw benchmark numbers here:
https://www.wolfssl.com/files/benchmarks/iOSiPhoneXA11Benchmarks.pdf

Reference
wolfSSL Blog Post

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Platform:

Intel SGX

Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-6300U @ 2.4GHz

Intel Compiler

Benchmark:

wolfSSL Benchmark

 

Benchmarks of wolfCrypt running in an Intel SGX enclave.  These benchmarks show that running wolfCrypt cryptography inside SGX has minimal performance impact on cryptography operation.

Non-SGX Benchmarks

SHA-256        0.264s        189.078 MB/s
AES-GCM       3.142s        15.911 MB/s
RSA (2048)    Encrypt       0.238 ms
RSA (2048)    Decrypt       6.239 ms

SGX Benchmarks, Inside the Enclave

SHA-256        0.263s        190.436 MB/s        -0.38% difference
AES-GCM       3.128s        15.985 MB/s         -0.45% difference
RSA (2048)    Encrypt       0.245 ms               2.94% difference
RSA (2048)    Decrypt       6.242 ms              0.05% difference

Reference

Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX) SDK

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Platform:

Intel QuickAssist
DH895xCC

Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4790 CPU 3.60GHz

12GB RAM

Benchmark:

 

Crypto Benchmarks:

Benchmarks using wolfSSL’s asynchronous benchmark application running multiple threads with CPU affinity in user space:

RSA 2048 public: 209,909 ops/sec
RSA 2048 private: 41,999 ops/sec
DH  2048 key gen: 112,491 ops/sec
DH  2048 key agree: 95,129 ops/sec
ECDHE 256 agree: 55,117 ops/sec
ECDSA 256 sign: 46,798 ops/sec
ECDSA 256 verify: 28,917 ops/sec
AES-CBC Enc: 2,932 MB/s
AES-CBC Dec: 2,882 MB/s
AES-GCM: 2,903 MB/s
3DES: 1,511 MB/s
MD5: 2,309 MB/s
SHA: 5,068 MB/s
SHA-224: 2,392 MB/s
SHA-256: 1,275 MB/s
SHA-384: 2,020 MB/s
SHA-512: 1,908 MB/s

Reference

wolfSSL Blog Post
Intel QuickAssist

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Platform:

HiKey LeMaker (ARMv8)
Kirin 620 SoC
ARM® CortexTM-A53 Octa-core 64-bit up to 1.2GHz (ARM v8 instruction set)

8GB eMMC storage
1GB RAM

Benchmark:

wolfSSL ARMv8 on HiKey LeMaker Board

 

Below is the complete data from the benchmarks comparing hardware acceleration to normal software crypto:

Algorithm Software Cryptography Hardware Cryptography
RNG 16.761 MB/s 82.599 MB/s
AES-128-CBC-enc 26.491 MB/s 649.179 MB/s
AES-128-CBC-dec 26.915 MB/s 607.407 MB/s
AES-192-CBC-enc 22.796 MB/s 566.717 MB/s
AES-192-CBC-dec 23.130 MB/s 553.092 MB/s
AES-256-CBC-enc 20.004 MB/s 504.143 MB/s
AES-256-CBC-dec 20.207 MB/s 491.374 MB/s
AES-128-GCM-enc 6.224 MB/s 393.407 MB/s
AES-128-GCM-dec 6.226 MB/s 182.279 MB/s
AES-192-GCM-enc 5.895 MB/s 361.801 MB/s
AES-192-GCM-dec 5.895 MB/s 175.676 MB/s
AES-256-GCM-enc 5.609 MB/s 333.911 MB/s
AES-256-GCM-dec 5.610 MB/s 169.085 MB/s
CHACHA 60.510 MB/s 60.017 MB/s
CHA-POLY 41.805 MB/s 41.410 MB/s
MD5 156.310 MB/s 154.421 MB/s
POLY1305 144.464 MB/s 143.058 MB/s
SHA 89.874 MB/s 89.154 MB/s
SHA-256 38.805 MB/s 533.139 MB/s
HMAC-MD5 156.301 MB/s 154.083 MB/s
HMAC-SHA 89.859 MB/s 89.045 MB/s
HMAC-SHA256 38.814 MB/s 532.316 MB/s
RSA, 2048, public 171.995 Ops/s 171.355 Ops/s
RSA, 2048, private 13.716 Ops/s 13.686 Ops/s
DH, 2048, key generation 50.831 Ops/s 50.575 Ops/s
DH, 2048, agree 41.826 Ops/s 41.596 Ops/s

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Platform:

 

AVX1: 1.8GHz, Intel Core i5
AVX2: Intel Broadwell

Benchmark:

 

Crypto Benchmarks:

  • AVX2:    SHA-256  50 megs took 0.320 seconds, 156.118 MB/s
    Cycles per byte =  9.75  = 47%
  • AVX1:   SHA-256  50 megs took 0.272 seconds, 184.068 MB/s
    Cycles per byte = 11.89  = 39%
  • Normal: SHA-256  50 megs took 0.376 seconds, 132.985 MB/s
    Cycles per byte = 16.46
  • AVX2:    SHA-384  50 megs took 0.226 seconds, 221.318 MB/s
    Cycles per byte =  6.88  = 42%
  • AVX1:    SHA-384  50 megs took 0.192 seconds, 260.975 MB/s
    Cycles per byte =  8.39  = 9%
  • Normal: SHA-384  50 megs took 0.209 seconds, 239.743 MB/s
    Cycles per byte =  9.13
  • AVX2:    SHA-512  50 megs took 0.224 seconds, 223.120 MB/s
    Cycles per byte =  6.82  = 75%
  • AVX1:    SHA-512  50 megs took 0.188 seconds, 266.126 MB/s
    Cycles per byte =  8.22  = 50%
  • Normal: SHA-512  50 megs took 0.281 seconds, 177.997 MB/s
    Cycles per byte = 12.29

Reference

wolfSSL Blog Post

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Platform:

Atmel SAMD21
ARM Cortex M0
48 MHz

Benchmark:

 

TLS Establishment Times:

Hardware accelerated ATECC508A: 2.342 seconds average
Software only: 13.422 seconds average

The TLS connection establishment time is 5.73 times faster with the ATECC508A.

Software only implementation (SAMD21 48Mhz Cortex-M0, Fast Math TFM-ASM):

ECC 256 key generation 3123.000 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations
EC-DHE key agreement 3117.000 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations
EC-DSA sign time 1997.000 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations
EC-DSA verify time 5057.000 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations

ATECC508A HW accelerated implementation:

ECC 256 key generation 144.400 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations
EC-DHE key agreement 134.200 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations
EC-DSA sign time 293.400 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations
EC-DSA verify time 208.400 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations

For reference the benchmarks for RNG, AES, MD5, SHA and SHA256 are:

RNG 25 kB took 0.784 seconds, 0.031 MB/s (coming from the ATECC508A)
AES 25 kB took 0.177 seconds, 0.138 MB/s
MD5 25 kB took 0.050 seconds, 0.488 MB/s
SHA 25 kB took 0.141 seconds, 0.173 MB/s
SHA-256 25 kB took 0.352 seconds, 0.069 MB/s

Reference

Microchip Hardware-TLS Platform
wolfSSL Microchip ATECC508A Overview and Examples

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Platform:

STM32F221G-EVAL
ARM Cortex M3
120MHz
1 MB FLASH
128 KB SRAM

Benchmark:

 

Crypto Benchmarks:

Software Crypto: wolfCrypt Benchmark, Normal Big Integer Math Library

AES        1024 kB took 0.822 seconds,   1.22 MB/s
ARC4      1024 KB took 0.219 seconds,   4.57 MB/s
DES        1024 KB took 1.513 seconds,   0.66 MB/s
3DES      1024 KB took 3.986 seconds,   0.25 MB/s

MD5          1024 KB took 0.119 seconds,   8.40 MB/s
SHA          1024 KB took 0.279 seconds,   3.58 MB/s
SHA-256    1024 KB took 0.690 seconds,   1.45 MB/s

RSA 2048 encryption took 111.17 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
RSA 2048 decryption took 1204.77 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
DH  2048 key generation   467.90 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
DH  2048 key agreement   538.94 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations

STM32F2 Hardware Crypto: wolfCrypt Benchmark, Normal Big Integer Math Library

AES        1024 kB took 0.105 seconds,   9.52 MB/s
ARC4      1024 KB took 0.219 seconds,   4.57 MB/s
DES        1024 KB took 0.125 seconds,   8.00 MB/s
3DES      1024 KB took 0.141 seconds,   7.09 MB/s

MD5           1024 KB took 0.045 seconds,  22.22 MB/s
SHA           1024 KB took 0.047 seconds,  21.28 MB/s
SHA-256    1024 KB took 0.690 seconds,   1.45 MB/s

RSA 2048 encryption took 111.09 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
RSA 2048 decryption took 1204.88 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
DH  2048 key generation  467.56 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
DH  2048 key agreement   542.11 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations

Reference

wolfSSL and STM32

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Platform:

Texas Instruments
Tiva C Series TM4C1294XL Connected Launchpad

(www.ti.com)
ARM Cortex-M4
120 MHz
1 MB FLASH
256 KB SRAM
6 KB EEPROM

Benchmark:

 

Crypto Benchmarks:

AES      25 kB took 0.038 seconds,   0.642 MB/s
Camellia 25 kB took 0.032 seconds,   0.763 MB/s
ARC4     25 kB took 0.006 seconds,   4.069 MB/s
RABBIT   25 kB took 0.005 seconds,   4.883 MB/s
CHACHA   25 kB took 0.007 seconds,   3.488 MB/s
3DES     25 kB took 0.164 seconds,   0.149 MB/s

MD5      25 kB took 0.003 seconds,   8.138 MB/s
POLY1305 25 kB took 0.004 seconds,   6.104 MB/s
SHA      25 kB took 0.006 seconds,   4.069 MB/s
SHA-256  25 kB took 0.014 seconds,   1.744 MB/s
SHA-512  25 kB took 0.042 seconds,   0.581 MB/s

RSA 2048 encryption took 88.000 milliseconds, avg over 1 iterations
RSA 2048 decryption took 1456.000 milliseconds, avg over 1 iterations
DH  2048 key generation  661.000 milliseconds, avg over 1 iterations
DH  2048 key agreement   665.000 milliseconds, avg over 1 iterations

ECC  256 key generation  130.400 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations
EC-DHE   key agreement   118.000 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations
EC-DSA   sign   time     136.800 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations
EC-DSA   verify time     253.800 milliseconds, avg over 5 iterations

Reference

CyaSSL and TI-RTOS

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Platform:

Freescale TWR-K70F120M

(www.freescale.com)
Freescale Kinetis K70
120 MHz
2 GB FLASH
1 GB RAM

Benchmark:

 

Crypto Benchmarks:

AES        5120 kB took 9.059 seconds,   0.55 MB/s
ARC4      5120 kB took 2.190 seconds,   2.28 MB/s
DES        5120 kB took 18.453 seconds,   0.27 MB/s

MD5         5120 kB took 1.396 seconds,   3.58 MB/s
SHA         5120 kB took 3.635 seconds,   1.38 MB/s
SHA-256  5120 kB took 9.145 seconds,   0.55 MB/s

RSA 2048 encryption took  73.99 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
RSA 2048 decryption took 1359.09 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
DH  2048 key generation  536.75 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
DH  2048 key agreement   540.99 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations

Build Details

  • MQX RTOS, using the fastmath library with TFM_TIMING_RESISTANT
  • FREESCALE_MQX define set in <cyassl_root>/cyassl/ctaocrypt/settings.h
  • CodeWarrior 10.2 IDE and compiler, optimizing for speed

Reference

Freescale TWR-K70F120M: http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/prod_summary.jsp?code=TWR-K70F120M

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Platform:

 

Apple TV 2

(www.apple.com)
Apple A4 (ARM Cortex-A8)
1 GHz
8 GB FLASH
256 MB RAM

Benchmark:

 

Crypto Benchmarks:

AES         5 megs took 0.500 seconds,   9.99 MB/s
ARC4       5 megs took 0.174 seconds,  28.66 MB/s
RABBIT    5 megs took 0.126 seconds,  39.56 MB/s
3DES       5 megs took 2.196 seconds,   2.28 MB/s

MD5        5 megs took 0.163 seconds,  30.73 MB/s
SHA         5 megs took 0.137 seconds,  36.61 MB/s
SHA-256  5 megs took 0.309 seconds,  16.20 MB/s

RSA 1024 encryption took   1.12 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
RSA 1024 decryption took  17.81 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
DH  1024 key generation   11.90 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations
DH  1024 key agreement    11.22 milliseconds, avg over 100 iterations

Build Details

Complete build, compiled with fastmath (--enable-fastmath)

Reference

Blog Post: Running CyaSSL on the Apple TV 2

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Platform:

 

 

(www.mbed.org)
ARM Cortex-M3
96 MHz
512 kB FLASH
32 kB RAM

Benchmark:

 

 

Memory Usage:

RAM Usage:  2.0 kB
Flash Usage*: 64 kB
* This included our test driver code, about 3kB.

Crypto Benchmarks:

public RSA:  10 milliseconds
private RSA: 165 milliseconds

Build Details

- Complete build, everything but SHA-512, DH, DSA, and HC-128
- Compiled using mbed cloud compiler

Reference

http://mbed.org/users/toddouska/libraries/CyaSSL/lm43pv
http://mbed.org/users/toddouska/programs/cyassl-client/lm394s

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Relative Cipher Performance

Although the performance of individual ciphers and algorithms will depend on the host platform, the following graph shows relative performance between some of wolfCrypt’s algorithms.  These tests were conducted on a Macbook Pro (OS X 10.6.8) running a 2.2 GHz Intel Core i7.

Benchmark Algorithm Comparison

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If you want to use only a subset of ciphers, you can customize which specific cipher suites and/or ciphers wolfSSL uses when making an SSL/TLS connection.  For example, to force 128-bit AES, add the following line after the call to wolfSSL_CTX_new (SSL_CTX_new):

wolfSSL_CTX_set_cipher_list(ctx, “AES128-SHA”);

Benchmarking Notes

  1. The processors native register size (32 vs 64-bit) can make a big difference when doing 1000+ bit public key operations.

  2. fastmath (--enable-fastmath) reduces dynamic memory usage and speeds up public key operations.  If you are having trouble building on a 32-bit platform with fastmath, disable shared libraries so that PIC isn’t hogging a register (also see notes in the README):

    ./configure --enable-fastmath --disable-shared
    make clean
    make

    *NOTE: doing a “make clean” is good practice with wolfSSL when switching configure options

  3. By default, fastmath tries to use assembly optimizations if possible.  If assembly optimizations don’t work, you can still use fastmath without them by adding TFM_NO_ASM to CFLAGS when building wolfSSL:

    ./configure --enable-fastmath CFLAGS=-DTFM_NO_ASM

  4. Using fasthugemath can try to push fastmath even more for users who are not running on embedded platforms:

    ./configure --enable-fasthugemath

  5. With the default wolfSSL build, we have tried to find a good balance between memory usage and performance.  If you are more concerned about one of the two, please see Chapter 2 of the wolfSSL manual for additional wolfSSL configuration options.

  6. Bulk Transfers wolfSSL by default uses 128 byte I/O buffers since about 80% of SSL traffic falls within this size and to limit dynamic memory use.  It can be configured to use 16K buffers (the maximum SSL size) if bulk transfers are required.

Publications and Flyers

Publications in relation to benchmarking our SSL/TLS and crypto libraries:

wolfSSL+NTRU: High-Performance SSL

This flyer details the performance gains that can be seen when using the wolfSSL embedded SSL library with Security Innovation’s NTRU cipher.  NTRU is similar to the RSA public key algorithm but can offer anywhere from a 20-200X speed improvement.

Download Flyer

wolfSSL Secure memcached Benchmarks

Because wolfSSL can offer fast encryption and low memory usage it can easily be leveraged onto high-volume servers supporting many thousands of connections. This flyer demonstrates memcached benchmarks using wolfSSL.

Download Flyer