RECENT BLOG NEWS

So, what’s new at wolfSSL? Take a look below to check out the most recent news, or sign up to receive weekly email notifications containing the latest news from wolfSSL. wolfSSL also has a support-specific blog page dedicated to answering some of the more commonly received support questions.

wolfSSL’s Kyber ML-KEM Implementation Now Included Free of Charge for Commercial Customers; Future Proofing is here today

We are now including commercial Kyber/ML-KEM in our wolfSSL/wolfCrypt commercial packages. At this point, you need to ask our support organization for a delivery if you want to start testing it. If you are willing to wait, then you will find it included in the next commercial bundle that we release. In summary, there will be no additional charge if you are a supported customer of wolfSSL/wolfCrypt.

Please note all of the advantages of our Kyber implementation from the previous blog posting here.

This begs the question, what about customers who have let their support plan lapse? Our answer is “What are you waiting for?!?”. Get started by reviewing our support packages. The next step is to get in contact with your wolfSSL business director and get signed up. You can do that by sending a message to facts@wolfssl.com.

To get an idea of the kind of performance you will get, see our benchmarks here:

Start your future proofing today and get started with post-quantum algorithms! Want wolfSSL’s implementation of Dilithium? Interested in LMS and XMSS? Let’s talk! CNSA 2.0 requirements? We can help. Contact us at facts@wolfssl.com or call us at +1 425 245 8247.

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Support for wolfBoot on Renesas RZ/N2L

We are excited to announce wolfBoot support for the Renesas RZ/N2L evaluation board. The Renesas RZ/N2L uses the high-performance Arm Cortex-R52 core to easily add network functionality onto industrial equipment and machines. The RZ/N2L is supported by an open and flexible ecosystem concept – the Flexible Software Package (FSP), built on FreeRTOS – and is expandable to use other RTOS and middleware.

wolfBoot is a portable secure bootloader solution that offers firmware authentication and firmware update mechanisms. Due to its minimalistic design and tiny HAL API, wolfBoot is completely independent from any OS or bare-metal application.

By adding wolfBoot support for the evaluation board, it demonstrates simple secure firmware boot from external flash memory by wolfBoot. The example uses SPI boot with external flash memory on the evaluation board. On this boot mode, wolfBoot is copied to the internal RAM(B-TCM). wolfBoot copies the application program from external flash memory to RAM(System RAM). As a final step of wolfBoot the entry point of the copied application program is called if the integrity and authenticity of the image are valid. More detailed steps can be found here.

If interested in wolfBoot support on the RZ/N2L, or if you have questions about any of the above, please contact facts@wolfSSL.com or call us at +1 425 245 8247.

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wolfSSL Supports Nucleus RTOS

The Nucleus RTOS uses wolfSSL to provide TLS security. The wolfSSL embedded SSL library is a lightweight SSL/TLS library written in ANSI C and targeted for embedded, RTOS, and resource-constrained environments – primarily because of its small size, speed, and feature set. wolfSSL supports industry standards up to the current TLS 1.3 and DTLS 1.3 protocol levels, is up to 20 times smaller than OpenSSL, and offers progressive ciphers such as ChaCha20, Curve25519, NTRU, and SHA-3.

Additionally, Nucleus employs wolfSSH to provide a client and server SSH library. The wolfSSH library is a lightweight SSHv2 client and server library written in ANSI C and targeted for embedded, RTOS, and resource-constrained environments – primarily because of its small size, speed, and feature set.

Adding FIPS certified cryptography to your Nucleus project is easily accomplished using wolfCrypt FIPS. A version of the wolfCrypt cryptography library has been FIPS 140-2 validated (Certificate #3389), with FIPS 140-3 validation currently in progress!

If you have questions about any of the above, please contact us at facts@wolfSSL.com or call us at +1 425 245 8247.

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Post-Quantum Kyber Benchmarks (ARM Cortex-M4)

Hot on the heels of our MacOS benchmarks, we now have our Kyber Benchmarks for Arm Cortex-M4.

Before getting into the numbers, some information on the conditions under which the benchmarks were taken:

  • The hardware platform was STM NUCLEO-F446ZE
  • The HCLK in the project was set to 168MHz
  • Only 1 core used
  • wolfSSL Math Configuration set to “Single Precision ASM Cortex-M3+ Math”
  • Optimization flag: -Ofast
  • Conventional algorithms are present for comparison purposes

Here are our results:

RSA    	    2048 	public    82 ops took 1.020 sec, avg 12.439 ms, 80.392 ops/sec
RSA    	    2048 	private   4 ops took 1.827 sec, avg 456.750 ms, 2.189 ops/sec
DH     	    2048 	key gen   5 ops took 1.181 sec, avg 236.200 ms, 4.234 ops/sec
DH     	    2048 	agree     6 ops took 1.419 sec, avg 236.500 ms, 4.228 ops/sec
ECC   SECP256R1 	key gen   118 ops took 1.012 sec, avg 8.576 ms, 116.601 ops/sec
ECDHE SECP256R1 	agree     56 ops took 1.016 sec, avg 18.143 ms, 55.118 ops/sec
KYBER512    128 	key gen   232 ops took 1.004 sec, avg 4.328 ms, 231.076 ops/sec
KYBER512    128 	encap     192 ops took 1.008 sec, avg 5.250 ms, 190.476 ops/sec
KYBER512    128 	decap     178 ops took 1.004 sec, avg 5.640 ms, 177.291 ops/sec
KYBER768    192 	key gen   146 ops took 1.008 sec, avg 6.904 ms, 144.841 ops/sec
KYBER768    192 	encap     118 ops took 1.008 sec, avg 8.542 ms, 117.063 ops/sec
KYBER768    192 	decap     110 ops took 1.000 sec, avg 9.091 ms, 110.000 ops/sec
KYBER1024   256 	key gen   92 ops took 1.011 sec, avg 10.989 ms, 90.999 ops/sec
KYBER1024   256 	encap     76 ops took 1.000 sec, avg 13.158 ms, 76.000 ops/sec
KYBER1024   256 	decap     72 ops took 1.000 sec, avg 13.889 ms, 72.000 ops/sec

Our implementation of Kyber’s performance is looking great compared to all the other algorithms. It might appear that ECDHE comes close, but not when you consider the mechanics of a key exchange.

Note that ECDHE is a NIKE (Non-Interactive Key Exchange) while Kyber is a KEM (Key Encapsulation Mechanism) so in the context of TLS 1.3, the numbers as they stand are misleading.

For NIKEs, both the server and the client must do the key generation operation. Then both the server and the client must also do the key agreement step. On the other hand, for KEMs, the client does key generation once, the server does encapsulation once, and the client does decapsulation once. Since NIKEs have double the number of operations to achieve a shared secret, for a fair comparison, we need to double the average time for ECDHE. In this light, the total time for a key exchange looks like this:

Algorithm Total Time for Key Exchange
ECDH SECP256R1 26.719 ms
Kyber512 (NIST Level 1) 15.218 ms
Kyber768 (NIST Level 3) 24.537 ms
Kyber1024 (NIST Level 5) 38.036 ms

Note that Kyber512, from a security perspective, is comparable to ECDH at SECP256R1.

The numbers speak for themselves: Kyber wins. That said, you can look forward to future optimizations and even better performance gains.

As we’ve noted in the past, Kyber has considerably larger artifacts than ECDHE, depending on your method of transmission, this margin can easily be lost if your transmission speeds are slow.

Want to see further optimizations to our Kyber implementation? Interested in wolfSSL’s other post-quantum algorithm implementations? Let us know so we can prioritize the things you are looking for.

If you have questions about any of the above, please contact us at facts@wolfSSL.com or call us at +1 425 245 8247.

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Post-Quantum Kyber Benchmarks (MacOS)

You may be aware that wolfSSL has our own implementation of NIST’s ML-KEM, also known as Kyber. ML-KEM is the post-quantum KEM that is slated for standardization by NIST. While the standard is not complete yet, and we have not yet released our implementation into open source, we do have some benchmarking results to share.

Additionally, we should note some things about our implementation that make it unique and useful:

  1. It will be fully integrated with our other products, including wolfSSL, wolfBoot, curl, etc.
  2. It is a consumer of our highly optimized SP Math library, with more ML-KEM optimizations to come!
  3. Because our products are well integrated with many other open source packages, those packages can inherit Kyber/ML-KEM support.
  4. It supports bare metal, as well as all of the other operating systems we support, including FreeRTOS, VxWorks, Integrity, Zephyr, Itron, LynxOS, etc.
  5. It also supports all of the silicon targets we support, including ARM, RISCV, DSPs, FPGAs, intel, etc.

The benchmarks results follow:

Math: 	Multi-Precision: Wolf(SP) no-dyn-stack word-size=64 bits=4096 sp_int.c
	Single Precision: ecc 256 384 521 rsa/dh 2048 3072 4096 asm sp_arm64.c


wolfCrypt Benchmark (block bytes 1048576, min 1.0 sec each)

DH      2048  key gen      3997 ops took 1.000 sec, avg 0.250 ms, 3996.812 ops/sec
DH      2048    agree      4100 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 0.244 ms, 4097.522 ops/sec
KYBER512    128  key gen     96100 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 0.010 ms, 96037.765 ops/sec
KYBER512    128    encap     78000 ops took 1.000 sec, avg 0.013 ms, 77970.220 ops/sec
KYBER512    128    decap     58900 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 0.017 ms, 58867.158 ops/sec
KYBER768    192  key gen     58200 ops took 1.000 sec, avg 0.017 ms, 58192.314 ops/sec
KYBER768    192    encap     48700 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 0.021 ms, 48664.334 ops/sec
KYBER768    192    decap     38100 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 0.026 ms, 38059.656 ops/sec
KYBER1024   256  key gen     37800 ops took 1.003 sec, avg 0.027 ms, 37704.299 ops/sec
KYBER1024   256    encap     32600 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 0.031 ms, 32566.427 ops/sec
KYBER1024   256    decap     26000 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 0.039 ms, 25967.020 ops/sec
ECC   [      SECP256R1]   256  key gen     84100 ops took 1.001 sec, avg 0.012 ms, 84013.469 ops/sec
ECDHE [      SECP256R1]   256    agree     24400 ops took 1.004 sec, avg 0.041 ms, 24300.995 ops/sec

The benchmarks were run on an Apple MacBook Pro 18,3 with an Apple M1 Pro, 3.09 GHz processor. Only 1 core was used. If you want to get the benchmark harness code, then ping us at facts@wolfSSL.com.

This data shows that for Kyber/ML-KEM, algorithm execution performance is rock solid. If you compare Kyber/ML-KEM’s numbers against DH and ECDHE, Kyber holds its own. To understand how to analyze and compare these number, see https://www.wolfssl.com/benchmarks-kyber-level-1-pqm4-integration-stm32-arm-cortex-m4/.

Interested in learning more about our post-quantum efforts? Want to understand how Kyber fits into different protocols and how it might affect your use case? Contact us at wolfSSL by emailing facts@wolfSSL.com or calling us at +1 425 245 8247 to reach out to your regional wolfSSL business director

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Live Webinar: DTLS 1.3 Training

Join us for an exclusive webinar “DTLS 1.3 Training”, scheduled for March 7th at 10am PT. Presented by wolfSSL Software Developer, Marco, this session is your gateway to mastering DTLS 1.3, a groundbreaking protocol adopted by wolfSSL.

As pioneers in TLS technology, wolfSSL is proud to stand as the first library to implement DTLS 1.3. Our webinar is the perfect opportunity to delve into what DTLS 1.3 entails and discover its real-world applications.

Save the date: March 7th | 10am PT

Sneak Peek of the Webinar:

  • Dive into fundamental concepts of DTLS
  • Discover enhancements in DTLS version 1.3
  • Engage in hands-on exploration of DTLS in UDP applications using wolfSSL DTLS 1.3

Don’t miss out on this opportunity to deepen your understanding of DTLS and leverage the power of DTLS 1.3 with wolfSSL. Register now to secure your seat!

As always, our webinars will include Q&A sessions throughout. If you have questions about any of the above, please contact us at facts@wolfSSL.com or call us at +1 425 245 8247.

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CPU-Accelerated Cryptography on OpenWRT Using wolfSSL

OpenWRT is a customizable open-source firmware for wireless routers and embedded devices, offering extensive flexibility and control over network configurations. For those looking to enhance their device’s security capabilities with efficient cryptographic operations, integrating wolfSSL with CPU acceleration presents an excellent option. This setup is optimized for devices compatible with x86 and armv8 architectures, ensuring enhanced performance where it matters most.

Setting Up wolfSSL with CPU Acceleration

When configuring OpenWRT, incorporating wolfSSL with CPU acceleration is straightforward.

  1. Initiate the Configuration Process: Begin with the make menuconfig command to open the OpenWRT configuration menu and select a compatible target device. This assumes you have already met all prerequisites, such as having the correct version of OpenWRT and necessary development tools installed on your system.
  2. Navigate to wolfSSL Options: From the top menu of the OpenWRT Configuration, make your way to wolfSSL by selecting Libraries → SSL. Here, you will encounter two options: libwolfssl and libwolfsslcpu-crypto. For CPU-accelerated cryptography, select libwolfsslcpu-crypto and ensure that libwolfssl is deselected (See Image). If you do not see libwolfsslcpu-crypto your target device may be incompatible or set up wrong in OpenWRT.
  3. Configure wolfSSL Library Settings: Proceed to the wolfSSL Library Configuration submenu to customize the options compatible with the libwolfsslcpu-crypto package.
  4. Save Your Configuration: This will make sure your OpenWRT build environment will compile with wolfSSL’s CPU-accelerated cryptography enabled, enhancing the performance capabilities of your device.

Why CPU Acceleration?

Leveraging CPU acceleration for cryptographic functions with wolfSSL not only improves encryption and decryption speeds but also optimizes processor load, making your device more efficient. To see the advantages of using your compatible device with wolfSSL’s CPU acceleration consider enabling the benchmark package seen in the figure above, and run it when you are in the final image for the device via a call on the command line for wolfssl-benchmark. Share your results with us on X @wolfSSL!

If you have questions about any of the above, please contact us at facts@wolfSSL.com or call us at +1 425 245 8247.

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Live Webinar: Migrating from OpenSSL to wolfSSL in 2024

Join us for an informative webinar “Migrating from OpenSSL to wolfSSL” led by wolfSSL Software Developer, Jacob, on February 29th at 10am PT. Jacob will guide you through the seamless transition from OpenSSL to wolfSSL, introducing the wolfCrypt FIPS 140-3 module to meet OpenSSL FIPS requirements, along with the revolutionary wolfEngine and wolfProvider technologies tailored to fulfill specific requirements for OpenSSL 1.x and 3.x.

Save the date: February 29th | 10am PT

Sneak Peek of the webinar:

  • Exploring wolfSSL compatibility layer
  • Implementing wolfSSL to replace OpenSSL
  • Live demonstration of a simple application migration
  • Showcasing major projects successfully migrated to wolfSSL
  • Insights into the future of the compatibility layer
    And much more!

This webinar offers a unique opportunity to discover how wolfSSL can unleash the full potential of your projects. Jacob will elaborate on leveraging wolfSSL products to seamlessly meet OpenSSL requirements, including FIPS compliance and compatibility with OpenSSL 1.x and 3.x. Don’t miss out on this chance to learn why migrating to wolfSSL is advantageous and how we can simplify your journey.

Register Now to secure your seats!

As always, our webinars will include Q&A sessions throughout. If you have questions about any of the above, please contact us at facts@wolfSSL.com or call us at +1 425 245 8247.

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Comparing wolfSSL vs OpenSSL

How does OpenSSL Compare with wolfSSL?

There are a lot of different metrics to compare when choosing between two TLS libraries. Some of those include heap usage and performance.

Heap Usage:

For heap usage wolfSSL can be significantly smaller — using 100’s of kilobytes less to handle an incoming TLS connection. The following is comparisons collected using a simple server example that was unaltered and linked against the two different TLS libraries. The same cipher suite ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 was used for all connections. The graphs were generated using Valgrinds massif tool.

OpenSSL 3.0.0 Used 800+Kb

OpenSSL 1.1.1 Used 200+ Kb

wolfSSL 5.2.0 Used 38.1 Kb
./configure –enable-opensslextra

wolfSSL 5.2.0 configured for a smaller build used 27.1 Kb
./configure –enable-opensslextra –enable-sp-math-all=small –enable-sp=small

Performance:

Both TLS implementations have assembly optimizations done for hardware commonly used in desktops. Such as Intel’s AVX or AESNI instructions and ARMv8’s crypto extensions. In many cases wolfSSL is slightly faster on those platforms. With embedded platforms like STM32F7 and PIC32MZ, only wolfSSL has hardware acceleration support. Independently done webserver stress tests making use of available optimizations in each of the TLS implementations have shown that wolfSSL can more than double the number of connections per second achieved when compared with OpenSSL version 1.1.1.

If you have questions about any of the above, please contact us at facts@wolfSSL.com or call us at +1 425 245 8247.

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wolfSSL SSL/TLS Support for NXP SE050

The wolfSSL lightweight SSL/TLS library and underlying wolfCrypt cryptography library have included support for the NXP SE050 module since November 2021. Since that time we have been increasing compatibility with SE050 along with usage of SCP03 (Secure Channel Protocol 03) authentication. To help users get started with TLS usage, we also have two example client applications available for use and reference.

wolfSSL TLS users can use the wolfSSL_CTX_use_PrivateKey_Id() API to instruct wolfSSL to use a private key located in the SE050 at a specific key ID. This would replace calls to wolfSSL_CTX_use_PrivateKey_file() or wolfSSL_CTX_use_PrivateKey_buffer(), giving applications enhanced security by allowing the private key to be stored (and optionally generated) inside the SE050 module.

#include <wolfssl/ssl.h>
int wolfSSL_CTX_use_PrivateKey_Id(WOLFSSL_CTX* ctx, const unsigned char* id,
    long sz, int devId);

For access to wolfSSL_CTX_use_PrivateKey_Id(), wolfSSL needs to be compiled with WOLF_PRIVATE_KEY_ID defined. This can be passed through configure via CFLAGS, for example:

cd wolfssl-X.X.X
./configure <options> CFLAGS=”-DWOLF_PRIVATE_KEY_ID”
make
sudo make install

TLS Client Demos Using SE050

wolfSSL has two example SSL/TLS client applications that demonstrate how users can leverage SE050 underneath wolfSSL’s SSL/TLS implementation. These examples are set up to be easily run on a Raspberry Pi environment with attached NXP EdgeLock SE050 Development Kit.

Available examples are included in the “wolfssl-examples” GitHub repository under the SE050 subdirectory and include:

  1. wolfSSL SSL/TLS Client Example

    This example demonstrates a simple SSL/TLS client, using hardware-based cryptography supported inside the SE050. It loads and uses a certificate and private key from C arrays/buffers. For a more advanced demo which uses the private key directly from the SE050, see the following example. For details, see the example README.md, or wolfssl_client.c file.

  2. wolfSSL SSL/TLS Client Example with Cert and Private Key in SE050

    This example demonstrates a simple SSL/TLS client, using hardware-based cryptography supported inside the SE050. It loads and uses a certificate and private key from C arrays/buffers into the SE050, then does all private key operations inside the SE050 for the TLS private key, based on a key ID. For details, see the example README.md or wolfssl_client_cert_key.c.

Resources

For more details on using wolfSSL or wolfCrypt with the NXP SE050, see one of the following links or email us at facts@wolfSSL.com. The wolfSSL embedded SSL/TLS library supports up to the most current TLS 1.3 and DTLS 1.3 protocol standards, has been optimized for performance and footprint size, and also provides easy paths forward for validation and certification requirements (FIPS 140-3, FIPS 140-3 (in progress), CAVP, DO-178C).

Blog: wolfSSL NXP SE050 Support and Benchmarks
Blog: wolfSSL Support for NXP SE050 with SCP03
Documentation: wolfSSL NXP SE050 Support (README_SE050.md)
Examples: wolfSSL NXP SE050 Examples (README.md)
Dev Kits: NXP EdgeLock SE050 Development Kits
SE050 Product Page: EdgeLock SE050: Plug & Trust Secure Element Family

If you have questions about any of the above, please contact us at facts@wolfSSL.com or call us at +1 425 245 8247.

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